Journal Articles

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The following are publications for which a PPHC member serves as first or last author or otherwise played a significant role in its production.


Collins, A.B., Goldman, J., Edwards, S., Hallowell, B.D., Smith, M.C. (2024) Adapting to changing risk environments: examining overdose risk and socio-spatial patterns of unstably housed people who use drugs during converging public health crises. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy, DOI: 10.1080/09687637.2024.2324977.

Macon, C., Tai, E., Lane, S. Understanding Health and Care Among Sex Workers: Perspectives from Rhode Island. (Book).

Rosenfield, M. N., Beaudoin, F. L., Gaither, R., Hallowell, B. D., Daly, M. M., Marshall, B. D. L., & Chambers, L. C. (2024). Association between comorbid chronic pain or prior hospitalization for mental illness and substance use treatment among a cohort at high risk of opioid overdoseJournal of Substance Use and Addiction Treatment159, 209273–209273.

Tan, M., Park, C., Goldman, J., Biello, K. B., Buxton, J., Hadland, S. E., Park, J. N., Sherman, S. G., Macmadu, A., & Marshall, B. D. L. (2024). Association between willingness to use an overdose prevention center and probation or parole status among people who use drugs in Rhode IslandHarm Reduction Journal21(1).

Yedinak, J., Krieger, M. S., Joseph, R., Levin, S., Edwards, S., Bailer, D. A., Goyer, J., Daley Ndoye, C., Schultz, C., Koziol, J., Elmaleh, R., Hallowell, B. D., Hampson, T., Duong, E., Shihipar, A., Goedel, W. C., & Marshall, B. D. (2024). Public Health Dashboards in Overdose Prevention: The Rhode Island Approach to Public Health Data Literacy, Partnerships, and ActionJournal of Medical Internet Research26(1), e51671–e51671.


Rosenfield MN, Beaudoin FL, Gaither R, Hallowell BD, Daly MM, Marshall BDL, Chambers LC. Impact of comorbid chronic pain or mental illness on substance use treatment among cohort at high risk of opioid overdose. Journal of Substance Use and Addiction Treatment.

Allen B, Schell RC, Jent JA, Krieger M, Pratty C, Hallowell BD, Basta M, Goedel WC, Yedinak JL, Li Y, Cartus AR, Marshall BDL, Cerdá M, Neill DB. PROVIDENT: Development and validation of a machine learning model to predict neighborhood-level overdose risk in Rhode Island. Epidemiology.

Nolen S, Trinidad AJ, Jordan AE, Green TC, Jalai A, Murphy SM, Marshall BDL, Schackman BR. Racial/ethnic differences in receipt of naloxone distributed by opioid overdose prevention programs in New York City.Harm Reduction Journal. 2023;20:152.

Moyo P, Merlin JS, George M, Shireman TL, Marshall BDL. Association of opioid use disorder diagnosis with use of physical therapy and chiropractic care among chronic low back pain patients: A group-based trajectory analysis.The Journal of Pain (ePub ahead of print). DOI:10.1016/j.jpain.2023.10.003.

Bhondoekhan F, Marshall BDL, Trivedi A, Shireman TI, Merlin J, Moyo P. Racial and ethnic differences in receipt of nonpharmacologic care for chronic low back pain among Medicare beneficiaries with OUD. JAMA Network Open. 2023;6(9):e2333251.

Zang X, Walley AY, Chatterjee A, Kimmel SD, Morgan JR, Murphy SM, Linas BP, Nolen S, Reilly B, Urquhart C, Schackman BR, Marshall BDL. Changes to opioid overdose deaths and community naloxone access among Black, Hispanic, and White people from 2016 to 2021 with the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic: An interrupted time-series analysis in Massachusetts, USA. Addiction. 2023;118(12):2413-2423.

Bhondoekhan F, Li Y, Gaither R, Daly M, Hallowell BD, Chambers LC, Beaudoin FL, Marshall BDL. The impact of polysubstance use patterns on engagement of substance use disorder treatment among emergency department patients at high risk for opioid overdose.Addictive Behaviors Reports. 2023;18:100512.

Ti L, Grant CJ, Tobias S, Hore DK, Laing R, Marshall BDL. Development of a neural network model to predict the presence of fentanyl in community drug samples.PLoS ONE. 2023;18(7):e0288656.

Tracy M, Chong LS, Strully K, Gordis E, Cerdá M, Marshall BDL. A systematic review of systems science approaches to understand and address domestic and gender-based violence. Journal of Family Issues. 2023;38:1225-1241.

Moyo P, Vaillant J, Girard A, Gairola R, Shireman TI, Trivedi AN, Merlin JS, Marshall BDL. Prevalence of opioid and nonopioid pain management therapies among Medicare beneficiaries with musculoskeletal pain conditions from 2016 to 2019.Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2023;248:109930.

Allen B, Neill DB, Schell RB, Ahern J, Hallowell BD, Krieger M, Jent JA, Goedel WC, Cartus AR, Yedinak JL, Pratty C, Marshall BDL, Cerdá M. Translating predictive analytics for public health practice: A case study of overdose prevention in Rhode Island. American Journal of Epidemiology (ePub ahead of print). DOI:10.109/aje/kwad119

Nolen S, Wilson T, Jacka BP, Li Y, Beaudoin FL, Marshall BDL. Prevalence and correlates of experiencing drug-related discrimination among people who use drugs presenting at emergency department at high risk of opioid overdose.Addictive Behaviors Reports. 2023;17:100496.

Macmadu A, Banks AJ, Hallowell BD, Scagos RP, Hadland SE, Chambers LC, Marshall BDL. Receipt of prescription psychostimulants and psychostimulant-involved fatal overdose: A population-based case-control study.Substance Use & Misuse. 2023;58(9):1163-1167.

Cartus AR, Goedel WC, Jent VA, Macmadu A, Pratty C, Hallowell BD, Allen B, Li Y, Cerdá M, Marshall BDL. Neighborhood-level association between release from incarceration and fatal overdose, Rhode Island, 2016-2020.Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2023;247:109867.

Ranney MR, Marshall BDL, Langdon K, Wiehe S, Aalsma M, Jacka B, Peachey A, Beaudoin F. Increasing peer support for opioid use disorder recovery during COVID-19 through digital health: Protocol for a national randomized controlled trial.Iproceedings. 2023;9:e9424)

Cartus A, Marshall BDL. Invited commentary: On the mathematization of epidemiology as a socially engaged quantitative science. American Journal of Epidemiology. 2023;192(5):757-759.

Bhondoekhan F, Li Y, Gaither R, Daly M, Hallowell BD, Chambers LC, Beaudoin FL, Marshall BDL. The Impact of Polysubstance Use Patterns on Engagement of Substance Use Disorder Treatment Among Emergency Department Patients at High Risk of Opioid Overdose.Addict Behav Rep 2023; 18:100512. PMID: 37636893. PMCID: PMC10450842.

Chambers LC*, Hallowell BD*, Zullo AR, Paiva TJ, Berk J, Gaither R, Hampson AJ, Beaudoin FL, Wightman RS. Buprenorphine Dose and Time to Discontinuation Among Patients With Opioid Use Disorder in the Era of Fentanyl.JAMA Netw Open 2023; 6(9):e2334540. PMID: 37721749. PMCID: PMC10507490. *Contributed equally to this manuscript

Chambers LC*, Nair-Desai S*, Soto MJ, Behr C, Lovgren L, Zandstra T, Rivkees SA, Rosenthal N, Beaudoin FL, Tsai TC. Characteristics Associated With High Hospital Spending Over One Year Among Patients Hospitalized for COVID-19 in the United States: A Cohort Study.BMJ Pub Health 2023; 1:e000263. *Contributed equally to this manuscript

Murdock AR, Rogers ML, Jackson TL, Monteiro K, Chambers LC. Mental Health Status of Rhode Island Middle School and High School Students Before Versus During the COVID-19 Pandemic.J Sch Health 2023; In press.

Allen B, Marshall BDL, Cerda M, et al. Translating predictive analytics for public health practice: A case study of overdose prevention in Rhode Island. American Journal of Epidemiology. 2023 May 17; kwad119,

Beaudoin FL, An X, Basu A, Ji Y, Liu M, Kessler R, et al.Use of serial smartphone-based assessments to characterize diverse neuropsychiatric symptom trajectories in a large trauma survivor cohort.Transl Psychiatry. 2023 Jan 7;13(1):4. doi: 10.1038/s41398-022-02289-y.

Cartus AR, Goedel WC, Macmadu A, Marshall BDL, et al. Neighborhood-level association between release from incarceration and fatal overdose, Rhode Island, 2016-2020.Drug and Alcohol Dependence.2023 Apr 5:109867.

Griffith J, Chambers LC, Hallowell BD, et al. Examination of the Accuracy of Existing Overdose Surveillance Systems. JAMA Network Open. 2023;6(6):e2320789. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.20789

Chambers LC†, Griffith J†, Hallowell BD, Beaudoin FL, et. al. A Pragmatic Examination of Existing Overdose Surveillance Systems. JAMA Netw Open. 2023; 6(6):e2320789. PMID: 37378980, PMCID: PMC10308251. †Contributed equally to this manuscript

Chambers LC, Liu T, Hansen B, Bazerman LB, Cachay ER, et al. Risk of HIV Viral Rebound in the Era of Universal Treatment in a Multicenter Sample of Persons With HIV in Primary Care. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2023 May 10;10(6):ofad257. doi: 10.1093/ofid/ofad257. PMID: 37351454; PMCID: PMC10284343.

Chambers LC†, Hallowell BD†, Samuels EA, Daly M, Baird J, Beaudoin FL. An Evaluation of the Association Between Specific Post-Overdose Care Services in Emergency Departments on Subsequent Treatment Engagement. J Am Coll Emerg Physicians Open 2023; 4(1):e12877. PMID: 36643599, PMC: PMC9833281. †Contributed equally to this manuscript

Chambers LC†, Hallowell BD†, Samuels EA, Daly M, Baird J, Beaudoin FL. Evaluation of a Statewide Policy to Improve Post-Overdose Care in Emergency Departments and Subsequent Treatment Engagement. RI Med J 2023; 106(2): 34-39. PMID: 36848541. †Contributed equally to this manuscript

Chambers LC, Chu HT, Lewis N, Kamat G, Fortnam T, Chan PA, Lasher L, et al. Effectiveness of Monoclonal Antibody Therapy for Preventing COVID-19 Hospitalization and Mortality in a Statewide Population. RI Med J 2023; In press.

Chambers LC, Park A, Cole M, Lovgren L, Zandstra T, Beaudoin FL, et al. Long-Term Healthcare Costs Following COVID-19: Implications for Pandemic Preparedness. Am J Manag Care 2023; In press.

Chatterjee A, Krieger M, Marshall BDL, et al. Comparison of a national commercial pharmacy naloxone data source to state and city pharmacy naloxone data sources-Rhode Island, Massachusetts, and New York City, 2013-2019. Health Serv Res. 2023 Jul 5. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.14200. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 37408299.

Chen K, Rogers ML, Clark MA, Zandstra T, Lovgren L, Beaudoin FL, Chambers LC. Pandemic Preparedness and the Workforce: Employer Experiences with Long COVID. R I Med J; In press.

Collins AB, Baird J, Nimaja E, Ashenafi Y, Clark MA, Beaudoin FL. Experiences of patients at high risk of opioid overdose accessing emergency department and behavioral health interventions: a qualitative analysis in an urban emergency department. BMC Health Serv Res. 2023 Apr 18;23(1):370. doi:10.1186/s12913-023-09387-7. PMID: 37069593; PMCID: PMC10110343.

Collins AB, Beaudoin FL, Metrik J, Wightman RS. “I still partly think this is bullshit”: A qualitative analysis of cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome perceptions among people with chronic cannabis use and cyclic vomiting. DrugAlcohol Depend. 2023 May 1;246:109853. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2023.109853. Epub 2023 Mar 24. PMID: 36996524; PMCID: PMC10121940.

Collins AB, Wightman RS, Macon EC, et al. Comprehensive testing and rapid dissemination of local drug supply surveillance data in Rhode Island. International Journal of Drug Policy. 2023 August;118:104118.

Frueh L, Collins AB, Newman R, Barnett NP, Rich JD, Clark MA, et al. Multi-level influences on increased overdose risk behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic among people who use drugs in Rhode Island: a qualitative investigation. Harm Reduct J. 2023 Feb 4;20(1):14. doi: 10.1186/s12954-023-00741-w. PMID: 36739417; PMCID: PMC9898862.

Hallowell BD, Chambers LC, Samuels EA, Bratberg J, McDonald J, Nitenson A, et al. Sociodemographic and Prescribing Characteristics that Impact Long-Term Retention in Buprenorphine Treatment for Opioid Use Disorder Among a Statewide Population. Drug Alcohol Depend 2022; 241:109680. PMID: 36335834.

Macmadu A, Gurka KK, Linn HI, Smith GS, Feinberg J. Factors Associated with Non-Evidence-Based Overdose Responses among People Who Use Prescription Opioids Non-Medically in Rural Appalachia. Subst Use Misuse. 2023;58(2):163-170. doi: 10.1080/10826084.2022.2135967. Epub 2022 Dec 22. PMID: 36546533.

Macmadu A, Chambers LC, Marshall BDL, et al. Receipt of prescription psychostimulants and stimulant-involved fatal overdose: A population-based case-control study. Substance Use & Misuse. 2023 May; 58(9): 1163-1167.

Nolen S, Wilson T, Jacka BP, Li Y, Beaudoin FL, Marshall BDL. Prevalence and correlates of experiencing drug-related discrimination among people who use drugs presenting at emergency department at high risk of opioid overdose. Addict Behav Rep. 2023 May 18;17:100496. doi: 10.1016/j.abrep.2023.100496. PMID: 37249941; PMCID: PMC10213175.

Ti L, Grant CJ, Tobias S, Hore DK, Laing R, Marshall BDL. Development of a neural network model to predict the presence of fentanyl in community drug samples. PLoS One. 2023 Jul 13;18(7):e0288656. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0288656. PMID: 37440523.

Tolou-Shams M, Folk JB, Holloway ED, Ordorica CM, Dauria EF, Kemp K, Marshall BDL. Psychiatric and Substance-Related Problems Predict Recidivism for First-Time Justice-Involved Youth. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 2023 Mar;51(1):35-46. doi:10.29158/JAAPL.220028-21. Epub 2023 Jan 16. PMID: 36646452; PMCID: PMC10019581.

Wightman R, Metrik J, Lin TR, Yu L, Badea A, Almeida R, et al. Cannabis use patterns and whole blood cannabinoid profiles of emergency department patients with suspected cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome. In press, Annals of Emergency Medicine, March 2023.

Zullo AR, Riester MR, Goldberg EM, Cupp MA, Berry SD, Beaudoin FL. Long-Term Care Pharmacy Market Shares and Differences in Skilled Nursing Facilities Served. J Aging Soc Policy. 2023 Feb 25:1-14. doi: 10.1080/08959420.2023.2182997.


Beaudoin FL, Jacka BP, Samuels EA, Hallowell BD, Peachey AM, Newman RA, Daly MM, Langdon, KJ, Marshall BDL. Effect of a Peer-led Behavioral Intervention for Emergency Department Patients at High Risk of Fatal of Opioid Overdose: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Netw Open. 2022 Aug 1;5(8):e2225582. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.25582.

Beaudoin FL, Gaither R*, DeLomba WC*, McLean SA. The tolerability and efficacy of duloxetine for the prevention of persistent musculoskeletal pain after trauma and injury: A pilot three-group randomized controlled trial. Pain. 2022 Sep 15. doi: 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000002782. Online ahead of print.

Cartus AR, Goedel WC, Hallowell BD, Allen B, Pratty C, Planey AM, Ahern J, Cerdá M, Marshall BDL. Divergence Between Individual- and Neighborhood-Level Fatal Overdose Burden: A Population-Based Statewide Study. R I Med J (2013).
2022 Aug 1;105(6):46-51. PMID: 35882001.

Chambers LC, Hallowell BD, Zang X, Rind DM, Guzauskas GF, Hansen RN, Fuchs N, Scagos RP, Marshall BDL. The Estimated Costs and Benefits of a Hypothetical Supervised Consumption Site in Providence, Rhode Island. Int J Drug Policy 2022; 108:103820. PMID: 35973341.

Chambers LC, Beaudoin FL. Letter to the Editor: A Longitudinal Study of COVID-19 Sequelae and Immunity. Ann Intern Med 2022; 175(12):W153. PMID: 36315942.

Collins AB, Edwards S, McNeil R, Goldman J, Hallowell BD, Scagos RP, Marshall BDL. A rapid ethnographic study of risk negotiation during the COVID-19 pandemic among unstably housed people who use drugs in Rhode Island. Int J Drug Policy. 2022 May;103:103626. doi: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2022.103626. Epub 2022 Feb 17. PMID: 35228056; PMCID: PMC8849851.

Collins AB, McNeil R, Czechaczek S, Boyd J. That’s what I’m supposed to do at work“: Gendered labor, self-care, and overdose risk among women who use drugs in Vancouver, Canada. Crit Public Health. 2022;32(3):382-391. doi:10.1080/09581596.2020.1844151. Epub 2020 Nov 13. PMID: 35812810; PMCID: PMC9268005.

Goedel WC, Macmadu A, Shihipar A, Moyo P, Cerdá M, Marshall BDL. Association of medical cannabis licensure with prescription opioid receipt: A population-based, individual level retrospective cohort study.Int J Drug Policy.2022 Feb;100:103502. doi: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2021.103502. Epub 2021 Oct 23. PMID: 34695720; PMCID: PMC8810578.

Gaither R*, Ranney MP, Peachey A, Burock J, Rogers J, Bucci L, Beaudoin FL. A feasibility study of low-dose ketamine for acute management of suicidal ideation. In press, Journal of the American College of Emergency Physicians Open, July 2022. DOI:10.1002/emp2.12790

Hallowell BD, Chambers LC, Samuels EA, Bratberg J, McDonald J, Nitenson A, Onyeiekwe C, Beaudoin FL. Sociodemographic and prescribing characteristics that impact long-term retention in buprenorphine treatment for opioid use disorder among a statewide population. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2022 Oct 30;241:109680. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2022.109680. Online ahead of print.

Labs J, Nunn AS, Chan PA, Bessey S, Park CJ, Marshall BDL, Patel RR, Mena LA, Goedel WC. Projected Effects of Disruptions to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Prevention Services During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic Among Black/African American Men Who Have Sex With Men in an Ending the HIV Epidemic Priority Jurisdiction. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2022 Jun 6;9(7):ofac274. doi: 10.1093/ofid/ofac274. PMID: 35855962; PMCID: PMC9214131.

Macmadu A, Frueh L, Collins AB, Newman R, Barnett NP, Rich JD, Clark MA, Marshall BDL. Drug use behaviors, trauma, and emotional affect following the overdose of a social network member: A qualitative investigation. Int J Drug Policy. 2022 Sep;107:103792. doi: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2022.103792. Epub 2022 Jul 8. PMID: 35816791; PMCID: PMC9462427.

Macmadu A, Yolken A, Frueh L, Toussaint JR, Newman R, Jacka BP, Collins AB, Marshall BDL. Characteristics of events in which police responded to overdoses: an examination of incident reports in Rhode Island. Harm Reduct J. 2022 Oct 18;19(1):116. doi: 10.1186/s12954-022-00698-2. PMID: 36258209; PMCID: PMC9578237.

Nolen S, Zang X, Chatterjee A, Behrends CN, Green TC, Linas BP, Morgan JR, Murphy SM, Walley AY, Schackman BR, Marshall BDL. Evaluating equity in community-based naloxone access among racial/ethnic groups in Massachusetts. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2022 Dec 1;241:109668. doi:
10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2022.109668. Epub 2022 Oct 20. PMID: 36309001; PMCID: PMC9833886.

Werb D, Scheim AI, Soipe A, Aeby S, Rammohan I, Fischer B, Hadland SE, Marshall BDL. Health harms of non-medical prescription opioid use: A systematic review. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2022 May;41(4):941-952. doi: 10.1111/dar.13441. Epub 2022 Apr 18. PMID: 35437841; PMCID: PMC9064965.


Beaudoin FL, Kessler RC, Hwang I, Lee S, Sampson NA, An X, Ressler KJ, Koenen KC, McLean SA. Pain after a motor vehicle crash: The role of socio-demographics, crash characteristics and peri-traumatic stress symptoms.Eur J Pain.2021 Jan 18;. doi: 10.1002/ejp.1733. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 33458880.

Bernstein MH*, Fuchs N, Rosenfield M, Weiss AP, Blease C, Locher C, Magill M, Rich J, Beaudoin F. et al. Treating pain with open-label placebos: A qualitative study with post-surgical pain patients. J Pain. 2021 Nov;22(11):1518-1529. doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2021.05.001. Epub 2021 May 15. PMID: 34004348.

Collins AB, Beaudoin FL, Samuels EA, Wightman R, Baird J. The Impact of COVID-19 on Service Provision for Emergency Department Patients Post-Opioid Overdose: A Field Report. J Addict Med. 2021 Sep-Oct 01;15(5):432-434. doi: 10.1097/ADM.0000000000000779. PMID: 33201002; PMCID: PMC8489579.

Collins AB, Beaudoin FL, Samuels EA, Wightman R, Baird J. Facilitators and barriers to post-overdose service delivery in Rhode Island emergency departments: A qualitative evaluation. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2021 Nov;130:108411. doi: 10.1016/j.jsat.2021.108411. Epub 2021 Apr 14. PMID: 34118703.

Francis AG*, Croll J, Vaishnav H, Langdon K, Beaudoin FL. Treatment Retention in Older Versus Younger Adults with Opioid Use Disorder: A Retrospective Cohort Analysis from a Large Single Center Treatment Program. R I Med J (2013). 2021 Feb 1;104(1):51-54. PubMed PMID: 33517601.

Goedel WC, Marshall BDL, Galvani AP. Universal health care needed to end HIV epidemic in the USA.Lancet HIV. 2021 Feb;8(2):e63-e64. doi: 10.1016/S2352-3018(20)30342-8. Epub 2020 Dec 22. PMID: 33357503.

Goldberg E*, Zullo A, Beaudoin FL. When One Size Doesn’t Fit All: Agitation in Older Adults Requires A Tailored Approach.Academic Emergency Medicine, 2021 Oct;28(10):1200-1201. doi:

Macmadu A, Batthala S, Correia Gabel AM, Rosenberg M, Ganguly R, Yedinak JL, Hallowell BD, Scagos RP, Samuels EA, Cerdá M, Paull K, Marshall BDL. Comparison of Characteristics of Deaths From Drug Overdose Before vs During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Rhode Island.JAMA Netw Open. 2021 Sep 1;4(9):e2125538. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.25538. PMID: 34533569; PMCID: PMC8449276.

Macmadu A, Brinkley-Rubinstein L. Essential Strategies to Curb COVID-19 Transmission in Prisons and Jails. Am J Public Health. 2021 May;111(5):776-777. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2021.306206. PMID: 33826375; PMCID: PMC8033996.

Wightman RS, Perrone J, Scagos R, Hallowell BD, Krieger M, Li Y, McGregor AJ, Nelson LS, Marshall BDL. Toxicological and pharmacologic sex differences in unintentional or undetermined opioid overdose death.Drug Alcohol Depend. 2021 Oct 1;227:108994. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2021.108994. Epub 2021 Aug 28. PMID: 34482038; PMCID: PMC8464519.

Wilson TT*, Chou SC, Becker S, Schuur JD, Beaudoin F. Sex Disparities in Opioid Use Among ED Patients with Sickle Cell Disease. Am J Emerg Med. 2021 Sep 21;50:597-601. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2021.09.023. Online ahead of print..